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Contents: Keynotes, Panels, Sessions

This section contains summaries, full transcripts, photos and audio files of the Plenaries, Keynotes, Sessions and Panels of the Summit. [Work in progress]

March 10, 2005

Special Plenary

With participation of His Majesty the king and the secretary general of the United Nations

The President of the Club of Madrid, Fernando Enrique Cardoso, opened the session with a lively introduction which gave way to words from His Majesty Juan Carlos I, King of Spain. The Monarch in a brief and emotional speech, expressed the strength of the Spanish people in the wake of the painful memory that hovers over the city of Madrid, just one year after the tragedy which occurred at the Atocha train station. Afterwards, King Juan Carlos I passed the microphone to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan.

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Closing Plenary

The International Summit on Terrorism and Democracy finished today with a closing ceremony which included closing words by many attending authorities including the Spanish president, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero. The experts who spoke tried to spell out in their speeches the causes of terrorism, as well as the strategies to be followed in order to combat it.


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A Global Strategy for Fighting Terrorism

The Secretary-General, United Nations

Keynote address to the Closing Plenary of the International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security


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High Level Committee IV

H.E. Ernesto Zedillo, Former President of Mexico and Club de Madrid member


  • Republic of Austria, H.E. Minister of Interior Liese Prokop
  • Inter-American Development Bank, H.E. Enrique Iglesias
  • Republic of Brazil, H.E. Minister of Justice Márcio Thomaz Bast
  • Council of Europe, Hon. Secretary-General Terry Davis
  • Spain, H.E. Minister of Justice Juan Fernando López Aguilar
  • United Status of America, H.E. Attorney General Alberto Gonzales
  • Federal Republic of Nigeria, Hon. President of the Senate Adolphus Wabara
  • Republic of Poland, H.E. Primer Minister Marek Belka
  • Republic of Yemen, H.E. Minister of Human Rights Amat A. Alsoswa
  • Ukraine, H.E. Secretary for National Security and Defence Petro Poroshenko

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High Level Committee III

H.E. Felipe Gonzalez, Former Prime Minister of Spain and Club de Madrid member


  • Kingdom of Belgium, H.E. Vice-Prime Minister Patrick Dewael
  • Republic of Bulgaria, H.E. Former President Jeliu Jelev
  • Colombia, H.E. Vice President Francisco Santos Calderón
  • European Council, H.E. Secretary-General Javier Solana
  • Republic of El Salvador, H.E. Minister of the Interior Francisco Lainez
  • Palestinian National Authority, H.E. Minister of Civil Affairs Mohamed Darhan
  • Romania, H.E. Prime Minister Calin Popescu-Tariceanu
  • Russian Federation, H.E. Secretary of the Security Council Igor Ivanov
  • Republic of South Africa, H.E. Minister of Intelligence Ronnie Kasrils
  • Republic of Tunisia, H.E. Minister of Foreign Affairs Abdelbaki Hermassi

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High Level Committee II

H.E. Martii Ahtisaari, Former President of Finland and Club de Madrid member

  • France, H.E. Minister of Foreign Affairs Michel Barnier
  • People’s Republic of China, H.E. Former Vice-Prime Minister Qian Qichen
  • Republic of Cyprus, H.E. Minister of Foreign Affairs Georgios Iacovou
  • Republic of Ecuador, H.E. Minister of Foreign Affairs Patricio Zuquilanda
  • Republic of Slovenia, H.E. Minister of Defence Karel Erjavec
  • Greece, H.E. Prime Minister Kostas Karamanlis
  • Republic of Ireland, H.E. Minister of Social and Family Affairs Seamus Brennan
  • State of Israel, H.E. First Deputy Prime Minister Shimon Peres
  • Mexico, H.E. Attorney General Rafael Macedo de la Concha
  • Islamic Republic of Pakistan, H.E. Minister of Parliamentary Affairs Sher Afgan Khan Niazi

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High Level Committee I

H.E. Jennifer Mary Shipley, Former Prime Minister of New Zealand and Club de Madrid Member


  • Federal Republic of Germany, H.E. Vice Chancellor Joschka Fischer
  • Argentine Republic, H.E. Minister of Foreign Affairs Rafael Bielsa
  • Republic of Slovakia, H.E. Minister of Justice Daniel Lipsic
  • Spain, H.E. Minister of Interior José Antonio Alonso Suárez
  • Republic of Georgia, H.E Special Representative for Abkhazia Irakli Alasania
  • Republic of Hungary, H.E. Minister of Interior Monika Lamperth
  • League of Arab States, H.E. Secretary-General Amre Moussa
  • World Tourism Organisation, H.E. Secretary-General Francesco Frangialli
  • Republic of Panama, H.E. Former President Arístides Royo
  • Republic of Turkey, H.E. Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan

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Plenary: The Way Ahead

International cooperation, the promotion democracy, education, and economic assistance for underdeveloped countries are the best tools to defeat terrorism. This was one of the most important conclusions that was reached by the participants of the Thursday morning plenary session. There was a large audience, who followed the speeches of the panellists with a much interest. Among them Hamid Karzai, president of Afghanistan, and other intellectuals debated a strategy that should be adopted by Democracies in the fight against terrorism. During the entire debate the memory of the victims of 11-M was present. Tomorrow will mark the one year anniversary of the event.

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Terrorism and Anti-Terrorism in Spain

Moderator: Rogelio Alonso
Panellists:Fernando Reinares, Edurne Uriarte, Francisco Llera, Antonio Elorza, Carlos Fernández de Casadevante, José Manuel Mata, Oscar Jaime Jiménez, Florencio Domínguez, Maite Pagazaurtundua

The panel Terrorism and Anti-Terrorism in Spain evaluated the country’s experiences with Basque and Islamist terrorism. Controversially, one panellist argued that the Basque case had proved some of the liberal assumptions wrong: political initiatives had consistently failed, democracy – if anything – appeared to encourage the terrorists, and economic prosperity had contributed little to creating stability. Others believed that the Basque experience provided crucial lessons, namely that co-operation – between countries, as well as between the police and the political agencies of the state – was crucial in making counter-terrorism measures effective. The panel was organised in collaboration with Rey Juan Carlos University, Madrid.

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Terrorism Goes High Tech

Moderator: Brian Jenkins
Panellists: Anja Dalgaard Nielsen, Steve Lukasik, Peter Zimmerman, Declan Ganley, Mark Lampert

The panel and ad hoc working group Terrorism Goes High Tech discussed how modern society had become highly vulnerable. In one panellist’s view, terrorists increasingly act like venture capitalists in choosing targets that maximise the political and economic damage to their enemies. Specific vulnerabilities included the power grid and the internet. There was also a danger that terrorists may steal or acquire weapons of mass destruction. However, modern technologies could also be drawn on in the fight against terrorism, with one panellists arguing that technology could help to minimise the terrorist risk at every stage of a group’s development.

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Religion and Religious Extremism

Moderator: Oliver McTernan
Panellists: Kjell Magne Bondevik, Feisal Abdul Rauf, S. Iqbal Riza, Hassan Hanafi, Radwan A. Masmoudi, Ben Mollov
Respondents: William Vendley, Brian Glyn Williams

The panel Religion and Religious Extremism dealt with the complex relationship between violence and faith. Some panellists argued that the revival of religion, in particular that of a politicised version of Islam, was related to the prolonged social and economic crisis in the Arab world. The key was to channel the anger of young people with little economic or social perspective into constructive directions. There was agreement, for example, that the clergy needed to teach tolerance and respect. The best solution, however, was to construct viable political and economic systems.

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Stopping the Spread of WMDs

Moderator: Christopher Dickey
Panellists: Rolf Ekeus, John Colston, Eugene Habiger, Sergei Ordzhonikidze
Respondents: Mahmoud Barakat, Jonathan Schell

The panel Stopping the Spread of Weapons of Mass Destruction revolved around the question of how to prevent WMD from falling into the hands of terrorists. Should terrorists manage to launch a nuclear bomb, one panellist pointed out, this would change the world more than the end of the Cold War. Therefore, regardless of whether the risk of this happening was high or low, the implications were so great that one had to give serious thought to its prevention. The panellists’ ideas on strengthening non-proliferation focused on treaty-based measures and operational strategies.

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The World Over a Barrel: The Politics of Energy

Moderator: David Buchan
Panellists: Marcell, Colitti, Alastair Morrison, Gary Hart, Roger Diwan

In the panel, The World over a Barrel: The Politics of Energy, most participants agreed that the energy industry was a target for terrorists, although it was debatable how significant the impact of potential attacks was. The most important effects, the panellists argued, lay in the perceived security risk which contributed to the rise in energy prices. At the political level, one panellist maintained that the forceful democratisation of the Middle East was counterproductive, because it maintained high oil prices, which allowed autocratic regimes to ‘buy off’ internal opposition. The panel was organised in collaboration with the Instituto de Empresa.
Religion and Religious Extremism

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Media and Terrorism: Friends or Foes?

Moderator: Juan Luis Cebrián
Panellists: Antonio Franco, Hasan Cemal, Giannini Riotta, Matthias Nass, Judith Miller, John Vinocur, Jean-Marie Colombani

In the panel The Media and Terrorism: Friends or Foes, the panellists debated how terrorism should be reported, and whether journalists should feel bound by political or professional imperatives. While some argued that the journalists’ only obligation was towards the reader, others stressed that it was important to deny the terrorists the ‘oxygen of publicity’. One panellist said that ‘democracy dies in bits’, meaning that the increasing restrictions imposed on reporting as well as the self-censorship practiced by many journalists had gradually, yet substantially, eroded civil liberties. The panel was organised in collaboration with grupo PRISA.

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Impact of Terror on Financial Institutions

Moderator: Arpad von Lazar
Panellists: Peter Sutherland, Reto Francioni, Hermann Alexander Schindler, Rico Carisch, Peter Eigen

In the panel The Impact of Terrorism on Financial Institutions, the panellists explored the issue from various perspectives. The long-term impact of terrorism on the stock market, one panellist maintained, was quite limited, but financial markets continued to be vulnerable to terrorist attacks, for example from cyber space. Furthermore, the participants highlighted the absolute need to combat corruption and overhaul the existing practices and methods through which terrorist financing is fought. The panel was organised in collaboration with the Instituto de Empresa.

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From Violence to Voting: Armed Groups and Peace Processes

Moderator: Margaret Anstee
Panellists: Tore Hattrem, Celia McKeon, Andrés Pastrana, Joaquin Villalobos, Alistair Crooke

In the panel From Violence to Voting: Armed Groups and Peace Processes, the participants highlighted the complex nature of peace negotiations and the different factors that could prove to be influential. Drawing on experiences from El Salvador, Colombia and a number of other conflict zones, the panellists noted the value of third party negotiators, the imperative of involving civil society in processes of peacemaking and reconciliation, as well as the need to maintain, and respond to, dynamic processes (the existence and continuation of which could be of value in themselves). The panel was organised in collaboration with Conciliation Resources.

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Democracy, Terrorism and the Internet

Moderator: Joichi Ito & Marko Ahtisaari
Panellists: John Gage, Rebecca MacKinnon, Noriko Takiguchi, Dan Gillmor, Martín Varsavsky

The panel Democracy, Terrorism and the Open Internet discussed if it was advisable to restrict or impede public access to the internet because of the possibility of abuse by terrorists. The panellists agreed that interfering with the democratic freedoms offered by the internet would probably damage democracy more than it would harm the terrorists, and that the internet’s positive effects – in connecting people, for example – far outweighed the possibility of abuse. The internet, in the words of one panellist, is a technology embedded with democratic values. The panel was coordinated with the Safe Democracy Foundation.

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UN High Level Panel Report

Moderator: Antonio Vitorino
Panellists: Anand Panyarachun, Amre Moussa, Gareth Evans, Satish Nambiar, Kenneth Roth.
Respondent: Robert Badinter, Enrique Iglesias, Javier Rupérez, João C. Baena Soares.

The session on the UN High-Level Panel Report heard from several of its members. There was a strong feeling that the political deadlock on the issue of terrorism, which hindered effective action at the international level, needed to be broken, and that the recommendations made in the UN report could provide a winning formula. This was particularly true for the panel’s proposed definition of terrorism, which –in the words of one panellist– met both political and moral imperatives. Most panellists agreed that the fight against terrorism had wider political, economic and social dimensions, and that all these needed to be tackled by the UN to retain its credibility as an effective arbiter of international peace, security and justice.

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March 09, 2005

Plenary: Democracy and Terrorism

"It is a challenge to protect democratic societies from the current kind of terrorism partly because it is difficult to understand, but also because the breadth and scope of terrorism changes continually. But it continues to be by definition, a tool for forcing a specific political or religious ideology on society." With this thought, Madeleine Albright, former US Secretary of State, opened the plenary session on Democracy and Terrorism.

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Freedom, Security and Civil Liberties

Moderator: Celso Lafer
Panellists: Robert K. Goldman, Nicholas Howen, Jorge Dezcallar, Terry Davis, Irene Khan

In the panel Freedom, Security and Civil Liberties, the panellists discussed how civil liberties and human rights could best be protected in the fight against terrorism. Most panellists agreed that existing provisions were not only sufficient, but that it was essential to defend them. Others argued that terrorist attacks will lead people to accept more limits on their personal freedoms, and that it was important to educate the public about the effectiveness of the existing arrangements. The panel was organised in cooperation with the Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior (FRIDE).

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Women, Terror, Religion, Democracy: An Interactive Dialogue

Moderator: Michael Conroy
Panellists: A. El Bindari Hammad, Mahnaz Afkhami, Huda Imam, Morena Herrera Argueta, John Raines

The panel Women, Terror, Religion, Democracy: An Interactive Dialogue, highlighted the numerous forms of violence suffered by women. In the panellists’ view, however, this was no excuse for passivism. There was agreement that women needed to be empowered, so they could become dynamic agents for change, especially in environments in which women’s social participation was limited by traditional cultures, norms or religious values. It would be wrong, one panellist argued, to underestimate the extraordinary power of the ‘weak’! The panel was organised in co-operation with Globalitaria and The Rockefeller Brothers Fund.

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Missing the Plot? The Politics of Intelligence Post 9/11

Moderator: Richard Ben-Veniste
Panellists: Juan Hidalgo, Jean Michel Louboutin, Aleksandr Kostin, Greg Treverton, David Wright-Neville

The panel Missing the Plot? The Politics of Intelligence post 9/11 drew on the experiences of senior members of the intelligence community from across the world. There was agreement that, while organisational adjustments, reform and improved co-operation between different agencies were vital, there also needed to be a change in the entire intelligence culture, including the analysts’ ability to ‘think outside the box’. The ability of intelligence agencies to predict every major terrorist event was an unrealistic expectation, one panellist argued, but the services could play a vital role in reducing the public’s fear of terrorism.

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Balancing the Agenda

Moderator: Jesus Nuñez
Panellists: Kumi Naidoo, Ignasi Carreras, Eveline Herfkens, Theo Sowa, Peter S. Watson

In the panel Balancing the Agenda: How to Promote Development and Fight Terror, the participants criticised the decline in development aid budgets since 9/11. There was a conflict between the security and development agendas, it was argued, yet funding security at the expense of development was short-sighted. One panellist noted that Africa suffered the equivalent of several terrorist attacks every day from AIDS and other diseases. The panel was organised in collaboration with Intermón Oxfam and the Instituto Complutense de Estudios Internacionales.

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The Necessary Alliance: Atlantic Relations

Moderator: Nik Gowing
Panellists: Timothy Garton Ash, Gijs de Vries, Emma Bonino, Hubert Védrine, Rand Beers, Madeleine K. Albright
Respondent: John Edwin Mroz

The panel The Necessary Alliance: Strengthening Transatlantic Relations in the 21st Century discussed the recent political frictions between the United States and Europe. Most panellists agreed that there was more work to do in order to restore the close relationship between the two, with one arguing that – in the absence of a unifying force like the Cold War – this was not possible at all. In either case, movement was required on both sides: the United States had to become more flexible, whereas Europeans had to show that they were capable of putting their ambitious rhetoric into practice.

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From Conflict to Peace: Lessons from the Frontline debate

Moderator: Tim Phillips
Panellists: Ram Manikkalingam, David Ervine, John Hume, Harriet C. Babbitt
Respondent: Rose Styron

The panel From Conflict to Peace: Lessons from the Frontline highlighted the need for political dialogue, the role of economic development, and the inclusion of civil society actors in situations of sustained conflict. However, the panellists –from places like Sri Lanka, Colombia, Northern Ireland, and El Salvador– warned that the period of transition could also be fraught with new dangers, such as the degeneration of once politically motivated actors into criminal gangs. The panel was organised in cooperation with The Project on Justice in Times of Transition at Harvard University and The Columbia University Center for International Conflict Resolution.

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Terror and the Arab-Israeli Conflict

Moderator: Shlomo Ben-Ami
Panellists: Efraim Halevy, Abdel Monem Said Aly, Sa’eb Erakat, Terje Rød Larsen
Respondent: Robert Malley

The panel The War on Terror and the Arab-Israeli Conflict noted that the Madrid Summit took place at a possibly crucial juncture in Middle Eastern politics. All panellists expressed their hope for a positive turn in the fate of the region, with one panellist claiming that a peace deal could emerge within a matter of months. The renewed prospects for peace, however, also challenged both sides to deliver on their previous commitments: the year 2005, one participant stipulated, was a moment of truth! The panel was organised in collaboration with the Toledo International Centre for Peace.

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Terrorism and the Travel Industry

Moderator: David Unger
Panellists: Francesco Frangialli, Pedro Argüelles, Isabel Aguilera, William Fell, Victor Aguado

In the panel Terrorism and the Travel Industry, the participants highlighted the severe impact of major terrorist attacks on the transport and tourism industry. While all sectors of the industry were affected, air travel had suffered disproportionately and continued to be the most vulnerable. The implementation of new security measures was costly, but unavoidable. One panellist stressed the need to integrate and co-ordinate the actions of all stakeholders, and suggested that modern technology in the form of large databases could offer a solution. The panel was organised in collaboration with the Instituto de Empresa.

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Immigration: Is Integration Failing?

Moderator: Pierre Lellouche
Panellists: Morton H. Halperin, Assia Bensalah Alaoui, Jan C. Ting, Tariq Ramadan, Gilles Kepel, Robert Leiken

In the panel Immigration: Is Integration Failing?, the debate focused on the various experiences with integrating minority communities in Western countries. While some maintained that integration had been more successful than widely assumed, other panellists criticised the increased targeting of Muslims by law enforcement agencies which gave rise to alienation. There was some debate about the different models of integration, with one panellist arguing that a stronger emphasis on assimilation would help to further immigrants’ identification with society. The panel was organised in collaboration with the European Policy Centre and the Center for American Progress.

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Democratic Reform in the Arab World

Moderator: Lyse Doucet
Panellists: Amat A. Alsoswa, Carl Bildt, Saad Eddin Ibrahim, Amre Moussa
Respondents: Fred Halliday, Marina Ottaway

In the panel Democratic Reform in the Arab World, the discussion revolved around recent developments in the Middle East. Panellists’ experiences from Yemen, Egypt and Iraq helped to view the situation through a variety of regional lenses. Most were hopeful that a new dawn for democracy had broken, because most Arabs were –in the words of one panellist– fed up with the current state of affairs. There was some argument about the merits of foreign intervention to help build democracy, with some arguing that democracy can only emerge from within a nation whilst others welcomed the American attitude towards regime change in Iraq.

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Protecting the Humanitarian Space in the Face of Violence and Terror

Moderator: María Ángeles Espinosa
Panellists: Denis Caillaux, Hany El-Bana, Ed Cairns, Austens Davis

The panel Protecting the Humanitarian Space in the Face of Violence and Terror discussed the challenges for humanitarian action following the attacks of September 11 and the consequent ‘War on Terror’. Panellists argued that it was necessary to ‘roll back’ the politicisation of humanitarian aid. Ideas for strategies through which the lost space for humanitarian action could be recovered included increased accountability towards local actors, as well as the greater involvement and participation of civil society. The panel was organised in collaboration with Intermón Oxfam.

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Plenary: Preliminary Conclusions of the Working Groups

The first part of the Summit closed with a plenary in which the conclusions from each of the working groups were presented by their coordinators. They took on the responsibility of analyzing the terrorist phenomenon from all its possible aspects, with the aim of offering the widest possible explanation. Actually, there were also many common points of view making it possible to come close to a consensus on a concrete definition of terrorism. The Secretary General of the Club of Madrid, Kim Campbell emphasized the fact that this work had been done by 200 experts from all over the world.

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March 08, 2005

Inaugural Plenary

The Summit was inaugurated this morning with brief statements from Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Chairman of the Club de Madrid, Bernardino León, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and Iberoamerica, Alberto Ruiz Gallardón, Mayor of Madrid, Esperanza Aguirre, President of the Comunidad de Madrid, and His Royal Highness the Prince of Asturias. They all remembered the strength and courage with which the people of Madrid faced the terrible events of March 11th, and expressed their confidence in the fact that the Summit will help to promote solutions and new ways to allow peoples and governments to confront terrorism more efficiently.

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With the collaboration ofSafe Democracy Foundation
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