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March 8, 2005

Inaugural Plenary

The Summit was inaugurated this morning with brief statements from Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Chairman of the Club de Madrid, Bernardino León, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and Iberoamerica, Alberto Ruiz Gallardón, Mayor of Madrid, Esperanza Aguirre, President of the Comunidad de Madrid, and His Royal Highness the Prince of Asturias. They all remembered the strength and courage with which the people of Madrid faced the terrible events of March 11th, and expressed their confidence in the fact that the Summit will help to promote solutions and new ways to allow peoples and governments to confront terrorism more efficiently.



(Translated from the original)

Fernando Henrique Cardoso. President of the Club of Madrid
Your Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Asturias,

Your excellency the Minister of State for Foreign Affairs of Spain,

Your excellency the President of the Comunidad Autónoma of Madrid,

Your excellency the Mayor of Madrid,

Fellow members of the Club of Madrid

Distinguished authorities and guests

Ladies and gentlemen,

It is my honour and my pleasure to welcome you all, on behalf of the Club of Madrid, to the International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security.

The Club of Madrid gathers former Heads of State and Government, all of them coming from democratic nations. For the Club of Madrid, democracy and international cooperation are the cornerstones of a better world. We are 55 members currently, but this number keeps growing. I am sure one of the attractions of becoming a member of Our Club is to come regularly to the magnificently beautiful city of Madrid, the same Madrid whose brilliance was brutally shadowed a year ago.

Terrorism is primarily an attack on human life. But it is also a threat to freedom, democracy and peace.

Madrid, and New York before it, paid a devastating price in human lives and suffering to make all us realise the deadly impact of this new global threat.

In both cases, there was no warning before the attacks, neither any demands after them. The terrorists’ only purpose was to kill and maim as many people as possible. They wanted to intimidate and coerce, to generate fear and hate.

The indiscriminate use of violence against innocent civilians knows no limits. The strategic nerve centres of our interconnected world are especially vulnerable – from pipelines to communication networks.

The consequences of a chemical and bacteriological terrorist attack are too nightmarish to contemplate.

Terrorism is, in brief, a threat to international peace and security. It is a threat to our democratic societies. It is a threat to our beloved ones. It is a threat to each and every one of us.

We are faced with an extremely complex and evolving phenomenon for which there are no easy solutions.

Military responses are a necessary component of the equation. Let there be no doubt about it. But military action alone will not solve the problem. It may even aggravate it. For terrorist groups are fuelled by a sense of engagement in all-out war. They expect their opponents to react violently. And violence is the only thing that may harden their determination.

Unilateral action by any single nation, however powerful it may be, is also inadequate. Terrorism is no longer confined to the borders of States. It has become a trans-border problem. In addition to being inadequate as a reaction to terror, unilateralism clearly undermines the international system and increases the general feeling of insecurity.

Leniency in the struggle against terrorism can be even more disastrous. It is not an option.

Lofty ideals and generous words in praise of understanding and tolerance will not do the deed. There is no room for complacency here. Reason will not prevail by its own merits. We must blend faith in democracy with the resolve to act.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Terrorism breeds on humiliation and resentment. It seeks to foster intolerance. It prospers on the division rather than on the unity of peoples, religious and cultures.

It can only be defeated in a lasting way by a joint, flexible, sustained and comprehensive response by the entire international community.

Our common challenge now is to rebuild a consensus among democratic nations on the need for effective strategies to fight terrorism and safeguard the values and practices of democracy.

To be effective and legitimate, the global response against terrorism must be based on the full respect for human rights and the principles of International Law. The means we choose must reflect the ends we seek.

We must combine strength and resilience – including the consensual decision to use force whenever necessary – with the unwavering commitment to the due process of law, both internationally and in every single nation.

The strengthening of international trust and cooperation among peoples and governments is absolutely imperative for concerted action. Trust is a precondition, for example, for the exchange of information and coordination among the intelligence services that are required to pre-empt terrorist attacks, or to prevent terrorist groups from using instruments such as the internet and the banking system.

Building trust and cooperation is more critical than creating new agencies and institutional mechanisms.

The Madrid Summit is a unique opportunity for all of us to look ahead and forge stronger democratic links between peoples and governments.

Recent developments in Afghanistan, Iraq and Palestine represent concrete steps in the arduous process of building democracy, peace and security. Fair elections were held in all those countries, in some of them against all odds. Those efforts must be supported.

Democracy cannot be imposed from above and from the outside. It is essentially a national construction. But these internal processes can and should be supported by the international community, by the United Nations, by individual countries.

Democracy is promoted and defended by people. Citizens are active players, not passive victims.

Let us discuss new forms of alliance and solidarity with leaders of civil society that are at the forefront of the fight for democracy in their countries.

Democracy, however, cannot be strengthened at the national level and weakened at the global level.

How is it possible for any world leader to praise freedom and democracy as the foremost goal to be achieved and, at the same time, pursue policies that undermine the UN, the only mechanism at our disposal for democratic global governance?

Let us, therefore, also discuss concrete ways of strengthening the capacities of international institutions and enhancing their transparency and efficiency.

This Summit that starts today is a milestone. For the first time, political leaders, scholars, experts and civil society activists are called upon to debate and make proposals on how to counter one of the most critical threats to our societies.

I invite all of you here to meet this challenge and to translate our collective intelligence and commitment into effective measures, into a plan of action.

A strong Madrid Agenda, involving the governments and peoples of the world in the fight for peace and democracy, would be the most fitting tribute we could pay to the victims of terrorism in Madrid and in other parts of the world.

Let us react against terror. Let us react by saying yes to life and no to death, like Miguel de Unamuno did during the brutal Civil War in Spain.

Thank you very much.

Bernardino León. Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and Latinamerica

Your Royal Highnesses, Honourable President of the Club of Madrid, Honourable President of the Regional Government of Madrid, Honourable Mayor of Madrid, ladies and gentlemen. This Friday March 11th is the first anniversary of something we would never have wished to commemorate. The terrible terrorist attacks that took the lives of 191 innocent people of 17 different nationalities, caused injuries to over 1,500 people, and deeply shocked a country and the entire world. The memory of such loss and pain, the memory of so many other people whose lives were so cowardly taken by terrorism, is an interminable source of pain, but also a source of strength and courage, and a reminder to us all that we must not let up in our fight against this threat.

This Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security, organised by the Club of Madrid, which we are today inaugurating, brings a most necessary element to the debate and to the efforts being made by democratic societies in our fight against terrorism. I should like, from where I stand, to thank all those who have responded to the call made by the Club of Madrid to help shed some light on the subject. I should like to thank you even more for your presence which is, in itself, a show of affection for, and solidarity with, the Spanish people at such a time. We sincerely hope that what comes out of the debates that will take place over the next few days will help to guide us in the future towards action that would avoid more names being added to the thousands of victims that have already suffered, and are still suffering today, the senseless cruelty of terrorism any where in the world.

For the next three days, more than two hundred experts and numerous personalities from over fifty countries will analyse, here in Madrid, the complexity of the terrorist phenomenon and the global nature of the threat it poses. Working groups and round table discussions will analyse how terrorism arises, how it works, the underlying factors that provide fertile ground for new sympathisers, as well as the seemingly irreparable political, economic and social differences that provide fertile ground for the appearance of terrorist movements. They will also analyse how the intolerance and extremism that provide an atmosphere for terrorism come into being. Such analysis and debate, ambitious as it may sound, is necessary if we are to understand the complexity and diversity of the terrorist phenomenon, and identify possible remedies and anti-terrorism measures, in order to propose principles of intent and suitable courses of action.

This Madrid Summit takes place at a time when there is also much debate in the international community on the changes and new threats and challenges facing us all in the XXI century. For this reason, it is important that this summit contributes to the creation of a deeper and greater consensus within the many international agents involved in the fight against terrorism. The long years of struggle against terrorism have shown us that unity and firm commitment, on the part of all, provide the foundation of our strength and legitimacy. They have also shown that there are no short cuts in the fight against terrorism. It is a battle that must be waged on a long term basis. The promotion of consensus and cooperation are therefore absolutely necessary for the international community to acquire the instruments necessary to fight against global terrorism, from which no one is free.

On Thursday March 10th representatives from over 60 countries will begin to contribute to the forging of such a consensus. Senior representatives from the major international organisations will also have the opportunity to present their ideas and proposals for the fight against terrorism. I should like to take the opportunity to thank the Secretary General of the United Nations for his participation in this Summit. I should like to thank him very specially for his commitment to the promotion of a global strategy against terrorism, which is in keeping, no doubt, with the need for joint, coordinated action against this scourge; a scourge that must be condemned in all its forms and manifestations. We should not leave the slightest possible opening for terrorists to use to their benefit. Our firmness is their weakness. As Tito Libio said “there is no reasonable foundation for any crime”. For terrorism, even less so.

The wholehearted and unwavering condemnation of terrorism must be at the very base of an international consensus. The notion that terrorism can be identified with any culture or religion is also totally unacceptable. No cause, no matter how legitimate, no ideology, can justify terrorism. Democracy is the pillar and the limit in the fight against terror. It is the pillar not only because it is the best vaccine against terrorism, but also because terrorism frontally attacks the very principles and values of democracy, human rights and The Rule of Law. It is the limit because democratic principles and values can neither be forgone nor sacrificed in any antiterrorist policy, which must therefore unconditionally respect the values it purports to defend.

Our citizens are the very backbone of our democracy, and therefore an essential element in the fight against terrorism. Initiatives such as this Madrid Summit, where the participation of civil society is key, help to mobilise society and further isolate terrorists and those who lend them any kind of help or support. It is the kind of social mobilisation that will prevent walls of incomprehension and intolerance from being erected, and give rise to a spirit of solidarity, cooperation and firm undertaking. I cannot conclude without making special mention of the victims of terrorism, who also have a fundamental role to play. The voice of the victims can and must be an obligatory moral point of reference in any antiterrorist policy adopted. Their demands must be supported by active measures from states, and their voices must be heard and respected at national and international forums.

In short, we hope, as we officially inaugurate this summit, for practical reflection, with solid proposals for democratic courses of action, to come out of it; all of which must actively contribute to us all honing our efforts in order to forge a much needed international consensus for a more effective fight against terrorism. It is what citizens demand. And it is the best way to render homage to all the victims of terrorism.

Thank you very much.

Alberto Ruiz Gallardón. Mayor of Madrid

Your Royal Highnesses, authorities, ladies and gentlemen. The eyes of the world are on us today, in our city of Madrid, as they were last year. However, there is a difference, an important difference, which serves to clearly distinguish last year from now. On March 11th, the eyes of the world were upon us because of a crime and a tragedy. Today, they are again upon us, because of hope and honest undertaking. Because, after great, indeed very great, pain, after a year of suffering and perplexity, Madrid is itself again. It is itself again and can welcome one of the biggest meetings of Heads of State and Government, former heads of state and government, academics, intellectuals, artists and religious leaders, ever. And it is doing so fully confident that their presence here among us will be extremely useful, not only to help soothe some of the wounds that are still open, but, most of all, to tackle an ill that still threatens.

But, as it opens its doors to such an important gathering, Madrid also wishes to express a humble desire. Your Highnesses, I must, with your leave, now direct my words to the personalities visiting us today, to transmit that desire to them, in the name of the citizens of Madrid. You, leaders of the world, analysts, men of science, people upon whom the immense responsibility of directing the paths our nations shall take over the next years has been bestowed, have come to Madrid, drawn by the memory of simple, working people who were killed here a year ago. You have come to a city that has been wounded, but which is by no means a martyr; a city which refused to bow to terror on March 11th, and which, though it never wishes to forget the victims, certainly refuses to reduce its identity to one of little more than sorrow and bereavement. Quite the opposite: you will find a city that places above and beyond everything else, even an injustice such as the one that has been meted out to it, its enormous desire to live, its open and tolerant spirit. However, in spite of its enormous strength of character, which it has demonstrated over and over again, we need you.

We need your firm undertaking and effort to make it easier for us to feel safe again. We need your capacity to penetrate into the dark minds that attacked us, so we may find a way to prevent them from doing so again. That is why we believe that those of you who are here have a certain responsibility towards Madrid and towards the world, to find the keys that would allow us to eradicate the scourge of terrorism from the face of the earth. That is why Madrid, this city which is also your city, is humbly asking you, today, with humility and firmness, as it its wont, to put your greatest ethical and intellectual efforts to the task. We do so with the authority invested in us by those who have been victims of terrorism precisely because they have been victims of terrorism.

You may find it somewhat unjust that we pin such hopes in you. You, who, after all, are trying your utmost to come to grips with the mechanisms of human stupidity. You, and not the criminals who dealt us such an awful blow and who still pose a threat to us. You may even think how dare we place such confidence in what you are prepared to do when it is at times so difficult for we ourselves to find the right road. Well, the answer is very simple: we have nothing at all to say to terrorists; but we want, we need, to exchange ideas with you about how to get shot of them. Our only hope is that you can help us to overcome them, and banish them forever, from History. We only want you to orient us, with regard to the most effective way of bringing round to our way of thinking those who still believe that there can be some political, religious or ideological justification that turns man into an instrument of violence instead of a being worthy of harmony and celebration. Your Highnesses, for a year we have felt all the sincere affection, appreciation and compassion that has been offered to us.

For a year we have noticed all the sincere support that has been forthcoming from many other cities and countries of the world, always with great doses of humanity, and some times in very moving ways. For a year, in short, we have been very much aware that of all those shows of solidarity, the first and most intense came from the Crown itself, whose great sensitivity and strength you represent. But after such a precious year, we wish to embark upon a new era. The time for solutions is come. The time for response, intelligent and viable, bearing hope, no matter how difficult it might seem. The time for the ethical and material superiority of democracy over terrorist organisations and all their support mechanisms and doctrinal fallacies to become a concrete reality. The time, in short, for all the knowledge and moral authority of open societies to be channelled into the conclusions which should tellingly emerge in a few days from this Agenda of Madrid, as it has been called. An Agenda to be applied, used and tested to prevent and avert terrorist attacks, as well as for the total extinction of this particularly cruel form of violence.

The model upon which we base the way in which we live with and among each other was attacked and severely put to the test on March 11th. The terrorists tried to get this open city, in which people of 180 different nationalities live, to forget that, as a city, it has long decided to vouch for openness, tolerance and cultural diversity as a vehicle for progress. They failed. And that shows the strength, beyond the apparent weakness, of democracies. The Club de Madrid’s decision to also vouch for the active promotion of democracy and that form of government, and, most of all, for this way of understanding how people should live together, as the only efficient and ethically acceptable way of putting a definitive end to terror, could hardly be more opportune.

We are proud that this undertaking in the name of democratisation, which also represents a fight against terrorism, bears the name of our city. Because, as someone wrote, “freedom is indivisible, and even if just one man is enslaved, none of us are free”. For that very reason, as long as terrorism continues to be one of the scourges of the world, no matter under what guise, as long as other cities are victims of attacks and blackmail, as long as there is one single man persecuted by intransigence, Madrid, city of solidarity par excellence, the sensitive capital of a country in which, over the last three decades, a thousand people have been victims of terrorism, will continue to feel threatened, will continue to feel indignation, will continue to feel concern. Confident as I am that the people attending this conference will give the best of themselves over these next few days, confident as I am that the sacrifice of the victims of March 11th will not be in vain, I should like to reiterate my most sincere welcome to you all on behalf of the people of our city. And I must, Your Highnesses, once again express the city’s gratitude to the Crown, whose warmth and proximity continues to comfort us a year later. Welcome to Madrid. Thank you very much.

Esperanza Aguirre. President of the Comunidad de Madrid

Your Royal Highnesses, President Cardoso, honourable ministers, authorities, ladies and gentlemen. A year ago, Madrid was the victim of the worst terrorist attack in Spain’s history. One hundred and ninety-two citizens were killed, more than one thousand four hundred suffered injuries of varying degrees. Some of them very serious, so much so that today there are people who still suffer the physical consequences of those injuries. And that says nothing of the negative consequences that attack had on the state of mind of thousands of inhabitants of Madrid, especially, understandably so, on the friends and relatives of the victims, though they are by no means the only ones affected. Madrid was the place chosen that day by the terrorists to give expression to the only thing they can and wish to give expression to: their craving to destroy anyone who isn’t like them.

In the face of the pain and sorrow of so many families, so many parents, so many friends, who cried for, and are still crying for, the loss of their loved ones, once again we heard, as we had heard so many times before, attempts to explain the reason for such senseless cruelty; attempts to understand the possible reasons of terrorists. And here in Madrid, as we once again contemplated those attempts to explain the inexplicable, once again we got the feeling that we had been through this before, because Spain, and Madrid, has, for many years now, been suffering the ravages of terrorism Because here in Spain, for thirty years now, we have travelled a very long way in our analysis of terrorism and our fight against terrorism. Because Spain has had to face this phenomenon, like no other country in the western world.

The Spanish experience, an experience that so many destroyed families have been through, with all the pain and suffering it brings, has shown the error of all those well-intentioned thinkers who have sustained that terrorists are driven by motives that can be possibly explained. The only thing our experience has shown is that terrorists only feel better with and about themselves when they can detect the slightest show of weakness. It was a very hard road, full of dramatic errors, but Spaniards have realised that the only thing terrorists are after is the unconditional submission of all free citizens to their totalitarian project. And in this long and hard fight against terrorism, this fight in which we now know that we made mistakes that were always seized upon by the terrorists, the Spanish people have learnt that there is only one way to overcome them, and that way is the firmness of our convictions. And of our resolve to defend those convictions, with the law, and with the law only. And that any attempts at appeasement of terrorists are the best way for them to “grow”.

On March 11th last year Madrid was the victim of a particularly barbaric act, carried out by some terrorists who were operating for the first time in Spanish territory, but who have in common with other terrorists not only their methods based on the most absolute contempt for human life, but the same totalitarian ends, which are none other than keeping in submission all those citizens who wish to be free.

The Club of Madrid has had the magnificent idea of hosting and organising this International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security, here in Madrid. In the European city that has suffered most from terrorist attacks, and not only last March. The Regional Government of Madrid wished, from the very beginning, to actively collaborate in the preparation and development of this event, from which, we hope, will emerge analyses and reflections that will serve to boost our faith in the principles defended by our democratic regimes. Principles in which all democratic countries should be united. That must be repeated over and over again: we have to be prepared for the fight against terrorism. Because we must not forget that all democratic countries are a target; we are in the firing line, as it were, of terrorists, who have shown their total incompatibility with democracy.

Madrid, like Spain, knows a great deal about terrorism, and knows, as I said earlier, that terrorism can only be combated and eradicated with the very firm conviction that the values on which democratic societies are based are not negotiable. Freedom, equality before the law for all citizens, whatever their sex, race, religion or condition, the Rule of Law, democracy, the law… none of these things can be questioned if we want terrorists to know that their crimes are doomed to failure. Furthermore, all those citizens who are fortunate enough to live in regimes of freedom, in democracies such as ours, must know, need to know, that their governments will never give in to terrorists, because there is simply no possibility of dialogue between citizens who defend freedom, the law, and democracy, and those who wish, through terror, to take such things away from them.

Our values, the value of freedom, equality, and democracy are superior, infinitely superior, to the visionary utopias and totalitarian projects of all terrorists. In defence of those values, Spaniards know that there can be no half-measures, ambiguities or shady compromises. I should like, before I end, to remind all that the terrible attack of March 11th has been present in the life of every citizen of Madrid, every single day since that ill-fated morning. Since then, the citizens of Madrid have shown their great spirit of solidarity with the victims, whom we have all tried to give our help and support, constantly.

That has been the best consequence of that terrible crime, which has served to make the citizens of Madrid give the very best of themselves, and show the world just how a city can bend over backwards and offer care and attention to victims and how a city can show what the word solidarity really means. I believe that the magnificent reaction of the entire city of Madrid in the face of that attack is, precisely, the consequence of those values which inform the manner in which we live alongside each other, our moral progress and our material prosperity. In reacting in this way, with such calm and firmness to the challenge posed by terrorism, we the people of Madrid have told the world just how much we value our freedom. Thank you very much for your attention.

Opening address by His Royal Highness, The Prince of Asturias
Madame President of the Regional Government of Madrid, Honourable President of the Club of Madrid, Honourable Mayor of Madrid, Honourable Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and Latin America. Honourable Ministers, Attorney General, Secretaries of State and Chief of Staff of the Ministry of Defence, and other authorities present. Members of the Club of Madrid, Ambassadors and all those present here today.

Allow me, first of all, to thank the Club of Madrid and all those who have worked and collaborated with this body to organise this international summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security, for inviting me and The Princess of Asturias, to preside over this ceremony.

It is a great honour for us to warmly welcome to Spain, and Madrid, all the personalities and experts of very diverse origins and nationalities, who have wanted to be part of this important event. Their participation in this summit is a source of very great comfort to us since it once again serves to confirm that in the international community there is no shortage of will, effort and resources to successfully undertake the fight against the abominable threat that terrorism poses to democratic societies and the international community.

Spain, a free, plural, democratic and peace-loving society, has, unfortunately, been suffering for many years much death and pain caused by terrorism. It is by no means the only country that suffers such ills, but here in Spain we have always strongly expressed our emphatic rejection and indignation at every terrorist attack, wherever and whenever it takes place.

This ceremony, on the eve of the first anniversary of the terrible terrorist attacks that took place on March 11th last year in Madrid, provides us with the opportunity to reiterate our very firm condemnation of the senseless cruelty that terrorism is, with its absolute contempt for the most fundamental rights and liberties. It also allows us to render a heartfelt homage to the victims of terrorism, with all the respect and recognition they deserve, and once again express our deepest affection and support for all the relatives of such victims, as well as reaffirm our solidarity and recognise the debt society has towards them.

These are feelings we wish, at a time like this, to dedicate very specially to the one hundred and ninety-two children, women and men who were brutally killed; to the hundreds of persons who suffered very serious injuries during those cruel attacks last March 11th; and to the families of all those victims. We shall never forget the deep grief and pain we all felt during those tragic hours; nor shall we ever forget those extraordinary gestures of solidarity that were seen in our city.

Ladies and gentlemen, democracy and terrorism are simply irreconcilable. The extension of democracy and the consolidation of it across the world are the raison d’être of the Club of Madrid. Democracy is based on the respect for human rights, freedom, and pluralism, and the rule of law is essential if it is to be guaranteed. Terrorism, on the other hand, is, by its very essence and definition, a threat to life; it violates fundamental rights, denies freedom and strikes at the very core of the rule of law. It is therefore, by its very nature, an enemy of democracy and international security.

There can never be any justification for terrorist violence, the killings and damage it causes, or the threats and extortions that go hand in hand with it. The eradication of it is a priority objective, which must be pursued without delay or remission. It requires the unity of all democrats and must draw fully on the Rule of Law and the mechanisms of effective and efficient international cooperation, until it is totally eliminated.

We also have a great debt, as I said earlier, to each and every one of the victims of terrorism, and to their relatives and closest friends. We must always remember them, their immense pain, their inconsolable sadness. They are there as an example of courage, constantly reminding us of the great debt we have towards each and every one of them. They will always be in our hearts, though that is not enough. They deserve not only our sincere affection and consolation, but also our respect, devotion and generous solidarity; their rights, needs, problems and yearnings must always be properly seen to.

In short, as I said just over a year ago when I inaugurated the first international congress of victims of terrorism, governments, the international community, the democratic political forces, and ordinary citizens, must remain unflinching in their commitment against terrorism. Our common objective can be none other than to put an end to it.

The totalitarian mentality of terrorists must be met by our passion for life, freedom, justice and democracy. The ethical superiority of a system of which pluralism is the corner stone must provide a counter to their brutality, and that of those who lend them help and support. We should therefore make full use of the efficacy and effectiveness of democratic institutions and the weight of justice and the law. Therein lie our strength and reason.

I should like, in ending, to wish you success in your endeavours. As Heir to the Spanish Throne, but also as person and citizen, I, like all of you, harbour the hope that the results derived from the work you are about to carry out will help us advance towards the eradication of terrorism and further reinforce our commitment to fight, firmly, together, and with the necessary coordination, against the barbarity that this phenomenon represents. It is an undertaking, which, I repeat, cannot be divorced from the support and devotion we owe to every single victim of terrorism and their families.

Thank you very much and I wish you every success.


The President of the Club of Madrid, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, on the Inaugural Plenary of the International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security. (Photo: Club de Madrid)
Bernardino León, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and for Iberoamerica, on the Inaugural Plenary of the International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security. (Photo Club de Madrid)
Alberto Ruiz Gallardón, Mayor of Madrid, on the Inaugural Plenary of the International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security. (Photo: Club de Madrid)
Esperanza Aguirre, President of the Comunidad de Madrid, on the Inaugural Plenary of the International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security. Besides her, Alberto Ruiz Gallardón, Mayor of Madrid; Bernardino León, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and for Iberoamerica; His Royal Highness the Prince of Asturias and HRH the Princess of Asturias; Fernando Henrique Cardoso, President of the Club of Madrid. (Photo: Club de Madrid)
His Royal Highness the Prince of Asturias on the Inaugural Plenary of the International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security. (Photo Club de Madrid)
Secretary General of the Club de Madrid Kim Campbell, President of FRIDE Diego Hidalgo, Narcís Serra y Ana Palacio on the Inaugural Plenary of the International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security (Photo Club de Madrid)
With the collaboration ofSafe Democracy Foundation
Members of the Club de Madrid

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